WHAT IS DENGUE (CONCEPT)

Dengue is a viral infectious disease acquired by the bite of female mosquito (Aedes algypti).

Prevention and control of Dengue is basically a problem of domestic sanitation, with little or no expense, the members of each family can eliminate the problem without using chemicals (insecticides), preventing and eliminating mosquito breeding sites and covering the containers where water is stored.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) two-fifths of the world's population at risk of being infected with dengue and more than 100 countries have been affected by epidemics of dengue hemorrhagic fever.

WHO estimates that annually, more than 50 million cases of Dengue and Dengue hemorrhagic fever.

500,000 cases and 200,000 deaths in hospital, a high percentage of cases of Dengue are children. In the Dominican Republic as in other Caribbean countries and tropical areas of the Americas, dengue has a behavior endemic, with seasonal peaks every year.

Criteria for the diagnosis of classic dengue

1 - high fever that can progress from 3 to 7 days
2 - Headache
3 - Pain retroocular
4 - Arthralgia
5 - cervical lymphadenopathy
6 - Eruption
7 - Proof of tourniquet
8 - petechiae, purpura, epistaxis, menorrhagia and gingival bleeding.

Criteria for diagnosis of dengue fever with hemorrhagic manifestations

The classic dengue may be associated in 5-30% of cases hemorrhagic manifestations.

Sign and symptoms

1 - high fever that can evolve over 3 to 7 days
2 - Headache
3 - Pain retroocular
4 - Arthralgia
5 - Endenopatías
6 - Exatenia
7 - Tourniquet test positive
8 - petechiae, purpura, epistaxis, menorrhagia and bleeding.

Treatment of classic Dengue

1 - Outpatient Management
2 - Acetaminophen: Children 10 to 15 mgkg dose 4-6 hours 500 MG adults. every 6 hours
3 - Oral rehydration: offering plenty of fluids and / or oral rehydration salts.
4 - Avoid aspirin because of its effect of anticoagulant and antiplatelet plaqueatorio
5 - CBC

Consider hospitalization:
Severe malnutrition, heart disease, diabetes, immunosuppression, epilepsy, aged 60 years or in cases where there is good communication.

Treatment of Dengue Hemorrhagic
1 - Admission for observation
2 - intravenous fluids (0.33% mixed solution), depending on the degree of dehydration
3 - Take and record blood pressure, respiratory rate and urine output every 2 hours
4 - CBC
5 - hematocrit, hemoglobin and platelets serials.
6 - Avoid aspirin
7 - State the discretion of the physician Acetaminophen

Mode of contamination

1 - Standing water in tires, fences, bottles, cans, Pilitas, water tanks, troughs for animals
2 - ornamental plants that store water.

Prevention

1 - Lintas bleach twice a week to water storage tank and cover
2 - Remove old tires damaged vessels without using plastic or metal
3 - Eliminate yard waste bottle, etc..
4 - Change the water daily to vases in the house