Essential elements in any act of communication are:

• Issuer. Gives the message and may be individual, group, animal or machine.
• Receiver. Receives the message.
• Code. Set of signs and rules that combined are used to construct the message.
• Message. Information that the sender sends the receiver. May be unilateral or bilateral, depending on whether or not the message gets immediately to the receiver and whether or not there is reciprocal communication. These characteristics depend on two factors:
o temporal or spatial situation in which the message is performed. (Books or television).
o inequality in the knowledge of the code by the sender and receiver, possibly due to social or cultural causes.
• Canal. Channel through which circulates the message.
The non essential or non-linguistic communication process are:
• References. It is the object of a material nature or not, he represents or forwarding the message or sign.
• Location. Joint spatial and temporal circumstances, social and even personal through which communication takes place.
• Noise. Defects that cause a loss of information or difficult to understand the message